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Lesson 15

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In the lesson 15 we will look at a new question word, the interrogative pronoun 谁 shi who.

We will also go over the possessive pronouns, and begin to learn how we can define relationships between people. In this lesson we will also cover several different kinds of friendship.


15.01 Who are you?

你是谁?
Nǐ sh shi?
Who are you?
他是谁?
Tā sh shi?
Who is he?
她是谁?
Tā sh shi?
Who is she?
他们是谁?
Tāmen sh shi?
Who are they?

>> Listen to the MP3 (right click to save)

Pronunciation point:

shi is the typical pronunciation of 谁. There is another pronunciation for this word, shu which you may see in textbooks, but nobody ever pronounces it that way. Well, almost nobody. Sadistically enough, Chinese speakers may use this less common pronunciation when addressing you, precisely because it is the pronunciation you see (or saw) in textbooks.

15.02 Yes, and who are you? - Concept review dialogue

莎拉: 您好!
Nn hǎo!
王老师: 你好!
Nǐ hǎo!
莎拉: 您是老师吗?
Nn sh lǎoshī ma?
王老师: 是。你是谁?
Sh. Nǐ sh shi?
莎拉: 我叫莎拉,是美国留学生。老师贵姓?
Wǒ jio Shālā, sh Měigu lixushēnɡ. Lǎoshī gu xng?
王老师: 我姓王,叫王红。
Wǒ xng Wng, jio Wng Hng.

15.03 My, Hers, His, Theirs, Yours, etc. - Table of Possessive Adjectives

我的
Wǒ de
My
他的
Tā de
His
她的
Tā de
Her
你的
Nǐ de
Your
我们的
Wǒmen de
Our
他们的
Tāmen de
Their

>> Listen to the MP3 (right click to save)

Notes:

The Mandarin Chinese equivalent of the possessive pronoun is made by taking a pronoun and attaching the particle 的 de to it.

de has no meaning by itself, but instead creates a relationship between two words. Generally speaking, 的 de makes the word that comes before it define the word that comes after it in some way.

When used to create possessive adjectives (and pronouns), 的 de indicates that the pronoun (我,你,她 etc.) will alter the identity of another word, specifically by claiming some kind of possession over it.

When talking about possession, we can think of 的 de as being similar to the apostrophe + s in English - Matt's book, Sarah's pen.

15.04 What's the name of your company? - Concept review dialogue

A: 你们的公司叫什么名字?
Nǐmen de gōngsī jio shnme mngzi?
大卫: 我们的公司叫今紧金。
Wǒmen de gōngsī jio Jīnjǐnjīn.
A: 谢谢。
Xixie.
大卫: 不客气。
Bkqi.

15.05

王老师是他的老师。
Wng lǎoshī sh tā de lǎoshī.
Wang teacher is his teacher.
他的老师是王老师。
Tā de lǎoshī sh Wng lǎoshī.
His teacher is Wang teacher.
谁是你的老师?
Shi sh nǐ de lǎoshī?
Who is your teacher?
你的老师是谁?
Nǐ de lǎoshī sh shi?
Your teacher is who?

>> Listen to the MP3 (right click to save)

Notes:

Of course, strictly speaking Your teacher is who? is not correct English; however, such a construction is perfectly OK in Mandarin Chinese. If you remember from lesson 7, where we looked at 哪 which, the interrogative pronoun occupies the same place in a sentence that the answer does.

15.06 Friends

朋友
pngyou
friend
男朋友
nnpngyou
boyfriend
女朋友
nǚpngyou
girlfriend
新朋友
xīn pngyou
new friend
老朋友
lǎo pngyou
old friend
好朋友
hǎo pngyou
good friend
外国朋友
wigu pngyou
foreign friend
中国朋友
Zhōnggu pngyou
Chinese friend
 

>> Listen to the MP3 (right click to save)

Notes:

In cases where adjectives are single syllables there is no need to add the particle 的 de between the adjective and the noun it is modifying, 好朋友 hǎo pngyou good friend.

Likewise, when a noun is used to modify another noun, 中国朋友 Zhōnggu pngyou Chinese friend, 外国朋友 wigu pngyǒu foreign friend, there is no need to add the particle 的 de.

15.07 He and I are friends - comparison of sentence structure.

我和他是朋友。
Wǒ h tā sh pngyou.
He and I are friends.
他是我的朋友。
Tā sh wǒ de pngyou.
He is my friend.
他和马特是老朋友。
Tā h Mǎt sh lǎo pngyou.
He and Matt are friends.
马特是他的老朋友。
 Mǎt sh tā de lǎo pngyou.
 Matt is his old friend. 
萨拉和王军是新朋友。
Slā h Wng Jūn sh xīn pngyou
Sarah and Wang Jun are new friends.
萨拉是王军的新朋友。
Slā sh Wng Jūn de xīn pngyou
Sarah is Wang Jun's new friend. 

Notes:

de can likewise be added after names to indicate possession. As with possessive pronouns, it follows the pattern: (possessor) 的 de (possessed).
 

15.08 Please enter! Please sit!

王军: 这是王老师,这是我的外国朋友。
Zh sh Wng lǎoshī, zh sh wǒ de wigu pngyou.
马特: 王老师,您好!
Wng lǎoshī, nn hǎo!
王老师: 你好! 请进!请坐!
Nǐ hǎo! Qǐnɡ jn! Qǐng zu!
马特: 谢谢!
Xixie!
王老师: 不客气!
Bkqi!

Notes:

请进! Qǐnɡ jn! and 请坐! Qǐng zu! are often the first things you hear when visiting a person's home, office, restaurant, etc. 进 jn means enter and 坐 zu means sit. 请 Qǐnɡ, meaning please, is added before the verbs to convey a feeling of hospitality and warmth.

The verb 坐 zu sit is used for myriad purposes that its English counterpart is not, and we will be looking at it again more closely. Likewise, 请 Qǐnɡ has connotations and uses that the English equivalent please does not have - 请 Qǐnɡ can be used when inviting someone out, or when offering to treat the other person to a meal, as well as when instructing a superior on procedure.

15.09 Do you know his name?

王军: 你知道他的名字吗?
Nǐ zhīdo tā de mngzi ma?
马特: 不知道。你呢?
B zhīdo. Nǐ ne?
王军: 我也不知道。
Wǒ yě b zhīdo.


A Transcribe the characters below into pinyin

1.) _____________________ 2.) 知道 ____________________
3.) 朋友 _____________________ 4.) ____________________
5.) 外国 __________________ 6.) ___________________

B Translate the following pinyin into English

1.) nǚpngyou ____________________ 2.) lǎo _________________
3.) gōngsī ____________________ 4.) nnpngyou __________________
5.) shi __________________ 6.) pngyou ____________________

C Transcribe the following sentences into pinyin

1.) 这是我的老朋友。

_______________________________________________________.

2.) 他是我的男朋友。

_______________________________________________________.

3.) 谁是你的女朋友?

_______________________________________________________.

D Match the two characters together to make a word, then write the pinyin

1.) _________________
2.)

_________________

3.) 知             _________________
4.)

_________________

5.) _________________

E Translate the following sentences into English

1.) Tā sh wǒ de pngyou. 

_______________________________________________________.

2.) Tāmen sh shi?

_______________________________________________________?

3.) Nǐmen de gōngsī jio shnme mngzi? 

_______________________________________________________?

4.) Tā h Mǎt sh lǎo pngyou.

_______________________________________________________.

F Fill in the blanks

王军: Zh sh Wng lǎoshī, ______ sh wǒ de wigu __________.
马特: Wng _________, nn hǎo!
王老师: Nǐ hǎo! Qǐnɡ _____! Qǐng _________!
马特: ________!
王老师: Bkqi!

G Fill in the blanks

王军: Nǐ zhīdo tā de __________ ma?
马特: B __________. Nǐ ne?
王军: Wǒ ______ b zhīdo.

H Match the characters with the pinyin

nn : 姓     男     朋     高 xīn : 男     是     新     非
gu : 老     贵     男     忙  sī : 司     心     男     人 
wi : 贵     国     忙     外  do : 新     俄     渴     道 

I Select the right character for the word

1.) _____ (xīn)
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2.) _____ (rn)
(A) (B) (C) (D)
3.) _____ (b)
(A) (B) (C) (D)
4.) _____ (tiān)
(A) (B) (C) (D)